The scientific method is acknowledged as the most reliable way to solve problems of factual nature and generate scientific knowledge, with known and established processes (Karasar, 2012).
The scientific approach encompasses the necessary standards and methods to demonstrate the experimental rationale of findings. It reveals the appropriateness or similarities among facts, depicting what has been and is happening in the world. The term “scientific method” is used to express these standards and methods. The scientific approach includes the experimental rationale for findings, revealing the standard and methods necessary to demonstrate the experimental rationale of findings. It illustrates the appropriateness or similarities among facts, depicting what has been and is happening in the world.
The scientific method asserts that there are no limits to human knowledge, there is infinity in questions, and there is always more to be learned. It consists of specific processes and is, therefore, open to scrutiny. It is explicit, controllable, and subject to examination. The scientific method is unbiased, critical, and corrective. It is experimental, selective, and not arbitrary. It is congruent with reason, utilizing sensitive measurement tools. It is the most trustworthy means of problem-solving.
Fundamental Assumptions of the Scientific Method
The scientific method operates on the foundational assumptions that there exist systematic cause-and-effect relationships among events.
Human objectivity can be maintained by distancing oneself from social events, ensuring reliability in the eyes of the scientific observer.
Valid and reliable information can be gathered through the synthesis of inductive and deductive reasoning.
Events can be explained without reliance on metaphysical views, establishing a basis for understanding devoid of metaphysical underpinnings.
Steps Of The Scientific Method:
- Identification of the Issue,
- Definition of the Problem
- Anticipation of Solution Proposals
- Development of Research Methodology
- Collection and Analysis of Data
- Decision Making and Interpretation
Stages of the Scientific Method:
- Recognition of Difficulty – Sensing the Problem: An individual encounters a challenge. The person finds themselves in a problem situation and is unable to achieve the desired outcome.
- Identification/Narrowing Down of the Problem: The individual makes observations in the environment causing the problem, gathers evidence, and discovers and defines what is bothering them, that is, the problem.
- Anticipation of a Solution – Proposing Possible Solutions: Drawing on initial observations, investigations into the situation, and past experiences, the individual speculates about potential solutions to the problem.
- Identification of Observable Indicators; Formulation as Hypotheses or Questions: Predictions about expected situations are made through induction from proposed hypotheses and deduction from observable indicators.
- Experimentation and Evaluations – Testing Hypotheses: The individual attempts to determine the correctness of hypotheses by observing events, collecting evidence, and assessing whether the hypotheses hold true.
- Reporting: The findings are documented in a report.